1. Introduction: General Aspects of the Scottish Educational System.
1.1 Recent changes in the Educational system.
One of the principal features distinguishing Scotland from the rest of the UK is its educational system. The almost wholly public schooling system is supervised by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID) which acts in cooperation with the local authorities who provide schooling within their areas. Much of the SOEID’s contact with the education authorities is maintained through the Inspectors of Schools (HMIs) who seek to ensure that the education service is adequate to meet changing needs and priorities. The SOEID determines spending on educational buildings, prescribes standards, gives guidance on the content of schooling, and (in conjunction with the General Teaching Council. GTC) regulates the supply and training of teachers.
All aspects of Scottish education is devolved to the newly elected Scottish Parliament.
Within the last ten years significant developments affecting the educational system have included:
The Quest for Effective Schooling: traditionally the effectiveness of education in schools has been the main function of Her Majesty’s Inspectors of Schools (i.e. H.M.I.) through their formal inspections. A further aspect of this function, which has recently gained prominence, is to evaluate the arrangements for assuring quality of provision in schools (see above). Official reports, such as "Effective Primary Schools" (1989) and "Effective Secondary Schools" (1988) list criteria for effectiveness.
A definition of effectiveness in the Scottish context is offered in the 1988 Report viz.:
"An effective secondary school is one where pupils learn to the limit of their capabilities what is deemed appropriate, taking into account their personal needs and preferences."
Since 1989 Heads of schools have been required to adhere to government guidelines set out in the reports "Effective Primary Schools" and "Effective Secondary Schools". These include the expectation that:
- School aims are clearly set out and understood by staff,
- Detailed policy papers on all aspects of the school’s work are prepared, and
- School policies are produced by means of a process of consultation with teaching staff, the School Board and with parents.
The criteria for effectiveness have more recently been translated into performance indicators and these are used both by the national inspectorate and by quality assurance units which have been established in some local authorities/councils.
An Audit Unit within the Scottish Office has also been established with a remit to collect, analyse, and publish evidence about how well schools and education authorities are performing. Allied to these developments is the requirement for schools to have Development Plans which allow the external auditors (i.e. government inspectors) to evaluate a school’s effectiveness over time. In this respect school managers are much under scrutiny and are increasingly accountable to government, local councils, School Boards, and the local community.
Devolved School Management (DSM) and an increase in school autonomy
By the late 1990’s it had been accepted that schools in Scotland would have to market themselves effectively and to become involved in fund raising and sponsorship activities of different kinds. In this respect school heads have been increasingly required to assume the additional role of financial managers.
This context has been promoted by government support for devolved management. In 1993 a government circular entitled ‘Devolved School Management; Guidelines for Schemes’ was issued whereby Education Authorities in Scotland were required to develop schemes of devolved management. Comparisons may be made with developments in England where Local Management in Schools or LMS required Local Education Authorities (LEAs) to have a scheme of local management for their schools. In Scotland the authorities devised their own schemes - working to a formula whereby schools received approximately 80% of their budget (not including staffing costs). This process gave each school more latitude on how it chose to spend its allocation and, in this formula, schools receive a financial allocation in relation to the staffing establishment of the school.
The salient points of the Scottish guidelines may be summarised as follows:
– the objective of DSM in Scotland is to ensure that decisions on the day to day management of school education are taken at school level in consultation with the School Board;
– In the new division of labour between the local councils and schools the councils have a ‘strategic, enabling and supportive role’ and decisions at school level are taken by the Headteacher;
– each council has a single (DSM) scheme for all their schools and allocates financial resources in accordance with clearly established criteria, meeting the needs of schools and at the same time seeking to preserve equity of treatment between schools;
– unlike devolved management schemes in England and Wales (where schools have to pay actual salaries from delegated budgets) Scottish provision is based on national salaries determined nationally; there is therefore no evident pressure on school management to economise in relation to staffing.
– decision making is devolved to Headteachers (not to School Boards) but Headteachers have to have the agreement of their Board on the exercise of devolved powers;
– while the local council continues to appoint and is the employer of school staff, the recruitment of new staff is increasingly devolved to the school itself in consultation with the School Board;
– virement (i.e. financial flexibility) becomes possible at school level but DSM means an increase in the legal liability of Headteachers.
The establishment of School Boards
A key innovation in the process of devolution and one having impact upon the role of the school head, is the advent of School Boards. Previously schools were administered by the education authority (in Scotland these were regional authorities (see below) with little involvement of the local community in the decisions of management. The School Boards (Scotland) Act of 1988 provided for School Boards to be set up in education authority schools in Scotland and first came into existence in 1989. They now operate in most Scottish schools.
In the same year the so called ‘Parents Charter’ (1988) allowed parents a choice of school, if such were available. Initially this initiative made little impact on the Scottish preference for local schooling. Nonetheless, the publication of league tables of performance and other indicators of quality are now beginning to influence parental decision making, with the result that more ‘placing requests’ are being made to particular schools.
A continuing aspect of parental choice is between non-denominational and denominational schools, both of which are provided within the maintained sector.
1.2 Educational Administration
The changes in school administration outlined above must also be placed within the context of reforms which have led to the demise of the former Regions. For more than 20 years regional authorities (and their subdivisions) were responsible for the coordination of the educational service within their boundaries. Under the reform of local government (The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1994) 32 ‘unitary’ councils replaced the previous 9 regional and 3 island authorities. Education represents more than half of the activity and spending of the new councils and the current legislation requires them to assume an ‘enabler’ rather than a ‘provider’ role. This is a significant departure from the notion of dual partnership in the provision of schooling (i.e. between central and local government on the one hand and between local government and the schools on the other). Evidence suggests that the balance between these partners has been altered, particularly in terms of decision making powers. This is seen in the continuing centralisation of broad policy making and operative frameworks issued by the SOEID, coupled with increased devolution of decision making to the schools.
To summarise, all of these developments have contributed towards a more marginal role for the local government (i.e. the new councils) in the provision of schooling generally.
1.3 The Inspection of the Educational system
Her Majesty’s Inspectors are independent advisers to the Government (SOEID) and are appointed from the ranks of professional educators by the Queen, on the recommendation of the Secretary of State for Scotland. They provide two main functions, viz.:
1.3.1 information and advice on the formulation of educational policy in Scotland, and
1.3.2 inspection, with a view to assessing the quality of education and training within the system.
Inspector’s reports on individual institutions are influential in changing/developing school policies. Since 1982 the reports on schools’ inspection have been published and are accessible and made available to interested parents and members of the public generally. Summary reports are also issued, sometimes appearing in the local press.
A feature of recent years has been the emergence, in some authorities, of ‘quality assurance units’. Locally appointed ‘inspectors’ have used both qualitative and quantitative indicators of performance to evaluate the quality of schooling in their locality. The results of these surveys have been communicated to the schools in the expectation that they will improve themselves where necessary.
1.4 The Structure of the System and programmes of study.
In Scotland parents are required by law to see that their children receive full time education, at school or elsewhere, between the ages of 5 and 16. Before the age of 5 years there are pre-school opportunities for some children at nursery schools, day-nurseries, or playgroups. Current government policy seeks to expand these opportunities.
Primary and secondary schooling is provided in predominantly mixed gender classes. Primary schools take children from the age of 5 years up to 12 years, at which point they transfer to secondary schools - which are almost completely nonselective. The school leaving age was raised from 15 to 16 years in 1972/73. The great majority of the secondary schools are therefore six-year comprehensives (providing mainly for pupils from the local school catchment area) and covering the age range 12-16/18 years.
The content and management of the curriculum in primary and secondary schools is the responsibility of education authorities and headteachers, with guidance (and guidelines) regularly issued by the SOEID and the Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum. In the current context school managers are facing the challenges of a major programme of curriculum change which has impact upon all levels of compulsory schooling and upon the increasing numbers of pupils continuing their studies up to the age of 18.
These changes include:
1.4.1 A major programme of curricular review and development related to the 5 to 14 age-range.
For this the Government has issued detailed guidance on English language, mathematics, expressive arts, modern languages, environmental studies, and religious and moral education. These guidelines are intended to help schools design, plan and implement policies and programmes which will give all pupils a balanced and worthwhile experience in these subjects. Under these new arrangements standardised tests in English and Mathematics are being given to primary school pupils whenever they complete one of five levels. A major programme to extend modern language teaching to primary schools is also in process. Provision is also made for teaching in Gaelic in the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland.
At secondary level pupils initially follow a compulsory core curriculum. At the age of 14 years they are able to choose from curriculum ‘modes’ which provide both a choice but also a broad and balanced curriculum consisting of English, mathematics, a science, a modern European language, social studies, technological activities, art, music or drama, religious and moral education, and physical education. Pupils take the Scottish Certificate of Education (SCE) at Standard Grade at the end of their fourth year of secondary education (i.e. at the age of 16 years). This examination provides opportunities for most pupils to attain a pass at either Foundation, Standard, or Merit level(s) and reflects pupil abilities related to clearly stated criteria. Beyond this level the SCE Higher Grade is currently taken in the fifth and sixth year (i.e. at ages 17 and 18 years). The Certificate of Sixth Year Studies (CSYS) is also available for pupils who have completed their Higher grade main studies and who wish to continue studies in particular subjects.
In 1994 the government announced that it would introduce a new unified curriculum and assessment system called ‘Higher Still.’ These arrangements came into operation in session 1999-2000 and have instigated significant changes to the courses currently taken by pupils over the age of 16 years. The proposals have unified the agencies of accreditation and provide a single framework at five levels - embracing both academic and vocational courses - and hopefully provide a more coherent programme of study for pupils between the ages of 16 and 18 years.
2 Structures For The Management And Government Of Schools
The great majority of Scottish Schools are supported from public funds and are maintained by education authorities (i.e. the new councils). School Boards now play an important part in the administration and management of these schools. Primary and secondary schools are grouped together in ‘catchment areas’ (with one secondary school and a number of associated primaries in each catchment area) although this arrangement has been complicated by the right (established in the ‘Parents Charters’ of 1988) which allows parents to choose a school for their children, if they so wish. At present both primary and secondary schools are managed separately under local control.
Headteachers in Scotland are normally appointed to permanent positions by the local authority/council with School Board representatives on the appointing committee. Compared with the practice in some continental countries there is no element of election, neither is there any formal consultative process involving the teaching staff.
As we have seen the Government requires that all authorities maintain schemes for devolved school management (DSM). This allows each school a degree of autonomy over how it chooses to spend a proportion of the finances awarded to it under a national formula (see above).
2.1 School Government
The major elements playing a part in the management and government of schools are:
2.1.1 The School Board
The School Boards (Scotland) Act of 1988 provided for School Boards to be set up in education authority schools in Scotland. Underpinning the establishment of School Boards was the government’s desire to improve parental involvement in schooling and government legislation clearly reflects this.
School Boards first came into existence in 1989 and now operate in most schools in Scotland. The Act gave every public (state) school in Scotland the opportunity to form a School Board consisting of elected parent and staff members, together with members co-opted from the local community. Of the eligible schools in May 1994 School Boards were to be found in 74.0% of primary, 92.6% of secondary and 46.5% of special schools. In May 1996 School Boards existed in 74.9% of all Education authority primary schools; 93.8% of all secondary schools; and 52.6% of all education authority special schools. They are essentially consultative bodies comprising of parents, teaching staff, and co-opted members and together with Headteachers and Education Authorities they both share in the running of schools and provide a local focus for school management.
Elections to the School Board
the local authority is responsible for organising School Board elections for parent and staff members. Each school is entitled to have its own board, financed by the local education authority and its size varies according to the number of pupils on the school roll.
In a school having between 501-1000 pupils there will be 5 parent members, 2 staff members and 2 co-opted members. The councillor elected for the area in which the school is located and the Director of Education have the right to attend and to speak at the School Board meeting.
Parent members are elected by other parents of pupils attending the school; staff members are elected by the other teachers. The co-opted members are chosen by the elected members of the board and might include non-teaching members of staff, representatives from the community, and possibly school pupils.
The board elects its own chairperson (and vice-chairperson) from the parents and co-opted members. Normally this chairperson will be a parent and teaching staff members (including the Headteacher) cannot chair the meetings.
Powers of the School Boards
As consultative bodies and representatives of parents School Boards have been given important powers in relation to discussing and approving aspects of school policy, school development planning, and staff appointments at senior level. For this the headteacher:
- must provide statements regarding school policies for the board (on the curriculum, assessment, discipline, bullying, truancy, school rules etc); and
- must issue an annual report to the board on the level of attainment of the pupils and provide such information and advice as the board requires.
For its part members of the School Board:
- are responsible for approving the headteacher’s proposals for spending the school budget. If not approved the head has to submit new or modified proposals to the board;
- must be represented on the committee set up by the local education authority to appoint senior school staff. For headteacher appointments the local education authority will draw up a ‘short list’ of candidates which is submitted to the School Board before it is considered by the appointments committee. The board (minus any staff or pupil members) may add to or remove names from the list;
- are responsible for controlling the use of school premises outside school hours.
- must report to parents at least once a year and ascertain their views at a meeting. In this process the School Board can be a body through which parents can communicate their ideas, responses and concerns both to the school staff and to other concerned with education.
Some recent and current issues for School Boards
a) since 1989 there is evidence that local authorities generally have been both supportive of School Boards and of the national organisation - The Scottish School Board Association (SSBA). The SSBA circulates 22,500 copies of its newsletter "Grapevine" to parents and teachers five times a year. It also provides School Board training materials. Another significant body is the School Board Support Unit located in the SOEID in Edinburgh. This unit regularly publishes ‘Focus’, a newsletter giving information and advice to School Board members on a range of issues (see Appendix 2. Select Bibliography);
b) the SSBA is seeking change in the current legislation in order to widen the powers and role of School Boards, to influence not just the spending plans of headteachers but also the allocation of resources to schools from the local authority;
c) the involvement of School Board members in the appointments procedures has given them an important role in the decision making processes of the school;
d) the attitudes of headteachers have become more positive towards School Boards and heads increasingly view their relationship with School Boards as a partnership;
e) areas where School Boards expect to be involved in school policy formulation are those that particularly reflect the concerns of parents, in discipline and homework issues for example;
f) although School Board members have no powers over the curriculum they may discuss any aspect of teaching or learning and the School Board may request information on related matters. Amongst recent areas of contention between School Boards and school management are religious education, sex education, and the resourcing of schools when compared with other schools in the neighbourhood;
g) the chairperson of the School Board will normally represent the school to the media as well as representing the school to its community;
h) some local authorities have developed training programmes for School Board members and part of the financing for this has been provided by the government; currently most training for School Board membership is done by the SSBA by way of an SOEID grant and local authority support.
i) as the role of local authorities diminishes and schools assume more responsibility for their own resourcing and decision making it is likely that School Boards will take on a greater role in the overall management process. In this it is likely that they will develop their own unique identities and could become very different from one another depending upon the unique circumstances of the school and its community. It remains the case, however, that School Boards and the schools themselves must operate within the context of national legislation.
j) the Government is currently consulting School Boards and other interested parties on increasing the role and power of School Boards. Issues being covered mainly include School Board training, home-school agreements, class contacts and more responsibility in approving decisions on school policy and staffing.
2.1.2 The Headteacher and School Management
A Hierarchy of Responsibilities: the smaller size of primary schools makes for a simpler management structure to that of the secondary school. In the majority of primary schools the Head shares the tasks of management with one on more promoted members of staff but in very small schools the Head will manage the day to day running of the school as well as teach. In some rural areas the Head may be the only permanent member of staff.
Depending on the size of the school there may be three levels of teacher/manager i.e. Headteacher, Deputy Headteacher and Assistant Headteacher. In recent years a new post of Senior Teacher has been established (see below).
For secondary schools the existing hierarchical structure of promoted posts has emerged from developments taking place in the 1960’s and 1970’s, in particular:
i) the adoption (from 1965) of an 11-18 ‘all through comprehensive school’ model and
ii) the raising of the school leaving age (to 16 years) in 1972.
These developments were to result in a smaller number of secondary schools but a correspondingly increased number of pupils attending each school (an average of around 1000 pupils per secondary school was common in the mid to late 1970’s). In addition a more varied curriculum was on offer in the larger schools and the provision for pastoral support was to be enlarged following upon a government report (the Memorandum on (Pupil) Guidance 1968).
Following a study by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of the existing administration and organisation of secondary schools the then Scottish Education Department (SED) concluded that the simple management structure of previous years was no longer adequate for the new developments. As a result new grades of promoted posts were introduced in 1972 in order to supplement the existing Headteacher and Deputy Headteacher grades.
These posts included: Assistant Headteacher; Principal Teacher (Head of Subject Department); Assistant Principal Teacher. School staffing was to be determined by a national formula based on the projected roll (pupils) of each school.
2.2 Organs of Curriculum Co-ordination
2.2.1 Role Responsibilities - The Primary School
Typical role responsibilities of teachers occupying the management posts in the primary school include:
- Overall direction of the school including formulation of policy
- Monitoring and evaluating the work of the school
- Deploying staff
- Managing the accommodation and resources
- Liaising with external agencies
- Maintaining a working partnership with parents and the school board
The Headteacher delegates responsibilities (including administration) to the Assistant Heads and Senior Teacher(s). Where there are two Assistant Heads a conventional division of tasks might be in terms of Upper and Lower school responsibilities. These and such other tasks that the Head deems appropriate are scheduled for a time allowance which is designated as ‘non-teaching time’. A notional delegation of responsibilities to Assistant Headteacher level might appear as follows:
Assistant Headteacher 1:
- Administration of Lower School (Primary classes 1-3, ages 5-8)
- The professional development of teaching staff
- Making information returns
Assistant Headteacher 2:
- Administration of Upper School
- (Primary classes 4-7, ages 8-11/12)
- School language/reading policy
- The organisation of school functions and external visits
Coordination activities (e.g. learning support, special needs pupils, learning resources, induction of new and student teachers, etc.)
2.2.2 Role Responsibilities - The Secondary School
Typical role responsibilities of teachers occupying senior school management posts include:
- Overall direction of the school (including liaison with school board members)
- Day to day administration, examinations, time-tabling and discipline
- Division of responsibilities by year groups (e.g. lower, middle and upper school) and by management tasks (e.g. assessment, staff development, guidance etc.) allocated by the Headteacher (the numbers of AHTs are dependent upon the school roll)
The Headteacher, Deputy Headteacher and Assistant Headteacher(s) would make up the Senior Management Team (SMT).
2.2.3 Middle Management in Secondary Schools
It has been noted already that the Headteacher, Deputy Headteacher, and Assistant Headteacher(s) comprise the Senior Management Team. Additionally the Headteacher, together with the Principal (and Assistant Principal) Teachers will meet as the Middle Management Team. There is also coordination of subject department (and therefore Principal Teachers by the Assistant Headteachers to allow for regular contact between senior management and subject departments.
Typical Role Responsibilities include:
(i.e. for subject and guidance Heads of Department)
The management and organisation of teaching (i.e. of subject) departments, and pupil guidance
Assistant Principal Teachers:
(appointed in large subject department such as English and Mathematics, and in guidance)
Tasks delegated by the Principal Teacher
The numbers of each post have traditionally been determined by a formula based on the numbers of pupils attending the school. The introduction of a points system, in the late 1980’s, allowed senior management more flexibility in terms of meeting the real needs of their particular school. In this context the senior management team (SMT) has been able to make middle management appointments related to the size of the school and the ‘points’ allocated in relation to this.
In recent years, in the context of declining school rolls, it is possible to find ‘faculty groupings’ (e.g. for social subjects and science subjects) where, in a small secondary school, the faculty may be in the charge of a Principal teacher and each subject area (such as geography, history, or economics) the responsibility of an Assistant Principal Teacher.
For matters of curriculum coordination and the development of whole school policies the work of the middle and senior management team is significant. Curriculum outlines are laid down in considerable detail by the Consultative Committee on the Curriculum (CCC) and by the Scottish Examination Board. Additionally, in the 1990’s, much work takes place in terms of the priorities established in the School Development Plan (see above and below). For the primary school it is normally the responsibility of an Assistant Headteacher to coordinate curriculum development at lower or upper school level.
In contrast to the experience of schools in England there are no specific curriculum coordinators appointed in Scottish schools although it is possible that a member of the teaching staff might undertake unpaid leadership responsibilities in certain areas.
In summary the management system, described above, is now well established in Scotland. It is clearly built upon a hierarchy of promoted posts - each corresponding to a set of responsibilities above and beyond classroom teaching and each attracting extra payment. In most cases this involves a considerable supplement to the basic teacher’s salary.
The expectations made of promoted staff working in Scottish schools are considerable. They are at the same time expected to be efficient managers/leaders, educationalists (i.e. experts at managing the curriculum), and also teachers within a subject department. All teachers in this hierarchy, with the exception of the Headteacher, retain a teaching commitment, greater for the Senior Teacher than for the Deputy Headteacher.
3. Reforms in the Management of Schools
3.1 Increase in school autonomy and School Development Planning
At the beginning of the 1990’s, and therefore set within the context of initiating School Boards (from 1988) and the advent of Devolved School Management (see above), official publications had supported the process of School Development Planning (SDP). This was essentially seen as a process for managing major areas of change, as a framework for reviewing current practice, and as a means for identifying priorities for school development. A fundamental feature was the emphasis on a collective view of how and where the school should be developing. The planning process would therefore involve both the teaching and non teaching staff of a school and consideration of the views of parents, School Boards, the local authority and others.
Specific publications also showed how parents and others could become involved. ‘School Development Planning: the link with parents’ illustrated how information on school development planning could be set out in a way that parents could find attractive and easy to read; how schools might strengthen their partnership with parents; and how they might encourage and facilitate parental comment. Similarly, the School Boards Support Unit (see above) published ‘Focus on School Development Planning’ (1996) as a way of helping School Board members to become better informed and more aware of how they might participate in the planning process.
From August 1995 heads of Scottish schools have been required to evaluate their current performance and to describe their priorities for the future in a school development plan. In essence a four stage process of consultation and decision making would:
a) seek to identify priority needs;
b) take stock of existing practice;
c) set targets within the chosen area(s) of focus; and
d) develop a strategic plan for achieving the targets set.
Two examples will illustrate aspects of this process:
The first describes some of the priorities (and related targets) included in a secondary school Development Plan for session 1994-1995. The second is taken from a Development Plan which includes ‘School Discipline’ amongst its several priorities for session 1996-1997.
|Development Priority||Specific Target|
|Promotion of positive school ethos||to develop mechanisms for greater pupil involvement in school life; to institute a review of behaviour/discipline policy; to take account of responses to ethos indicator and health questionnaires;|
|Promotion of effective learning and teaching||to develop and implement home study policy; to further develop programmes of study and tasks which are matched to pupil needs; to implement relevant aspects of (the report) ‘Every child is special.’; to develop relationships with industry and business, as they affect both pupils and teachers;|
|5-14 development programme||to further develop and implement policy on assessment and reporting;|
|to consolidate development in English and Maths;|
|to foster cross curricular discussion about future 5-14 developments;|
|Appraisal and staff development||to continue implementation of appraisal programme, including staff appraisal by line colleagues;|
|to develop a comprehensive framework of staff development/in-service opportunities.|
|Development Priority:||School Discipline|
|Target:||To sustain a high level of discipline|
|Development Category:||New Development|
|Key Personnel:||Year Group Heads; Guidance Staff; All Staff|
|Time Scale:||One session|
Action Plan Outline:
1. Establish and maintain a higher profile for the pupils’ Code of Conduct by displaying it and reinforcing it at assemblies, registration, guidance group meetings and social education classes;
2. Introduce proforma to be used by Year Group Heads and Guidance Staff to provide feedback to staff on action taken on disciplinary matters;
3. Introduce formal arrangements for lunchtime detention of pupils;
4. Extend departmental support for learning; cooperative teaching to support teaching and learning;
5. Introduce two tier system for record of contact forms and accompanying notes of guidance;
6. Promote ‘whole school campaign’ on aspects of discipline, linked to assembly announcements;
7. Formation of staff committee to implement school policy on anti-bullying and further develop anti-bullying initiatives.
Improvement in pupil behaviour shown by reduction in record of contact slips issued, referrals etc.
Arrangements for Review
Senior Management team questionnaire to staff for feedback on effectiveness of new sanctions. Comment from year group councils.
Senior Management Team discussion of progress at meetings; Guidance - discussion of progress at meetings.
3.2 Management Training and Entry to Headship
Traditionally the main criterion for promotion to school headship in Scotland has been evidence of effective leadership and good experience as a Principal teacher (Subject). Since the changes of the mid 1970’s the normal route to a headship has been via experience as an Assistant Head and Deputy Head of a school. For a primary headship it would normally be expected that the candidate has had appropriate experience as an Assistant Headteacher.
In the 1990’s a Scottish Office initiative addressed the training needs of Scotland’s 3000 Headteachers of primary, secondary and special schools. With the central government meeting 75% of the costs all the education authorities offered the ‘Management Training for Headteachers (MTHT)’ programme. At the time of writing management training is increasingly being accredited by different Scottish universities and has involved the development of new study modules of work leading in some cases, towards a Diploma or Master’s degree in school management. The Open University in Scotland also offers opportunities for intending or existing headteachers to acquire credits leading to a Master’s degree or an Ed.D. in school management.
Recent and Current Educational Context
Managing Schools in Scotland (in Managing Schools in Europe. Ed. Peck and Ramsay 1994) University of Strathclyde Faculty of Education pps. 94 - 101
The law of the School. A Parents' Guide to Education Law in Scotland.
Scottish Consumer Council 1987.
Devolved Decision Making. Devolution and Local Accountability
School Boards. Guide to the Legislation. The Scottish Office 1989
MacBeath, J. McCaig, E. Thomson B. Making School Boards Work. University of Strathclyde Faculty of Education. December 1992
Making School Boards Better. MacBeath, J. E. C. University of Strathclyde Faculty of Education 1994
School Boards: Focus on School Boards operations. SOED 1994
School Boards in Scottish Schools: May 1994. Scottish Office Statistical Bulletin. April 1995
School Board Handbook - A Practical Guide, Scottish School Board Assocation 2000.
|Publications of the Scottish Office School Board Support Unit 1994-1996|
|School Board. Focus on School Board Operations.||Focus No. 1|
|Communicating with Parents.||Focus No. 2|
|Ethos Indicators||Focus No. 3|
|Bullying.||Focus No. 4|
|Truancy.||Focus No. 5|
|Per Capita||Focus No. 6|
|Devolved School Management||Focus No. 7|
|Parental Complaints||Focus No. 8|
|Consulting Parents||Focus No. 9|
|Appointments and Interviewing||Focus No. 10|
|Health Education||Focus No. 11|
|School Development Planning||Focus No. 12|
Scottish School Board Association, Newall Terrace, Dumfries. DG 1 1 LW.
The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. School Boards Support Unit, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh. EH6 6QQ